Research in Comparative and International Education
ISSN 1745-4999


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Volume 1 Number 3 2006

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CONTENTS [click on author's name for abstract and full text]

 

Aurora A.C. Teixeira & Maria Fátima Rocha. Academic Cheating in Austria, Portugal, Romania and Spain: a comparative analysis, pages 198‑209
Prachi Srivastava. Reconciling Multiple Researcher Positionalities and Languages in International Research, pages 210‑222
Jeremy Rappleye. Theorizing Educational Transfer: toward a conceptual map of the context of cross-national attraction, pages 223‑240
Lore Arthur. Higher Education and the Knowledge Society: issues, challenges and responses in Norway and Germany, pages 241‑252
Katerina Bodovski & Aaron Benavot. Unequal Educational Outcomes among First Generation Immigrants: the case of youth from the former Soviet Union in Israel, pages 253‑270
Nitza Davidovitch & Yaacov Iram. Higher Education in Israel at a Crossroads: the effect of regional colleges on the map of higher education in Israel, pages 271‑285
Joe Tin-yau Lo, Merry Merryfield & Sum-cho Po. Teaching about the World: two case studies, pages 286‑300

BOOK REVIEW
Culture and Pedagogy: international comparisons in primary education (Robin Alexander), reviewed by Jason Nicholls, pages 301‑303 VIEW FULL TEXT
doi:10.2304/rcie.2006.1.3.301


Academic Cheating in Austria, Portugal, Romania and Spain: a comparative analysis

doi:10.2304/rcie.2006.1.3.198

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The empirical evaluation of academic cheating has been almost exclusively focused on the US context. Little is known about cheating in European universities. This article aims to contribute further evidence on this highly relevant phenomenon afflicting higher education throughout Europe. Based on a large sample of undergraduate students of Economics and Management in Austria, Portugal, Romania and Spain, the authors estimated an econometric model and controlled for a variety of factors most likely to influence the probability of cheating (e.g. student characteristics, location, grades). It was found that (1) the likelihood of copying increases when the expected benefit from copying is positive; (2) in copying-favourable environments, the students’ propensity to copy tends to be higher; (3) the greater and more serious the perceived sanctions, the fewer the incentives students have to perpetrate dishonest behaviours; (4) in schools where ‘codes of honour’ exist, the propensity to copy among students is lower; and (5) the propensity to copy seems to be influenced by the countries’ education systems and social factors – for instance, Portuguese students are less prone to fraudulent behaviour, whereas Spanish students are more likely to cheat than their Austrian counterparts; no significant difference was found between Austrian and Romanian students.

 

Reconciling Multiple Researcher Positionalities and Languages in International Research

doi: 10.2304/rcie.2006.1.3.210

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Through the development of a set of ideas combining Merton’s conceptions of the ‘Insider and Outsider’ with Lacan’s notions of identity construction, the article examines: (1) the role of multiple researcher identities and positionalities, and (2) working in more than one language during data collection and analysis. The article aims to fill a surprising gap in existing literature on such issues in international educational research. Through a reflexive exercise on the fieldwork and data analysis process in one study, the article puts forward the concept of ‘currencies’ as a way to mediate researcher positionality and achieve temporary shared positionalities with research participants. It also highlights the need to mediate different languages during data analysis and presentation, introducing the concept of ‘analytic languages’ as a potentially useful construct in doing so.

 

Theorizing Educational Transfer: toward a conceptual map of the context of cross-national attraction

doi:10.2304/rcie.2006.1.3.223

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This article highlights some of the current methodological issues surrounding how to analyze and understand educational transfer with particular reference to cross-national attraction. It reviews the resurgent interest in the themes of attraction and transfer and evaluates new models and typologies that describe those complex processes. It argues that gaps in the current research and new challenges posed by ‘globalization’ necessitate a new interpretive framework. To that end, a contextual map of cross-national attraction is presented and its component parts are described in considerable detail. Examples from the author’s previous work on Chinese and American attraction to Japanese education are used to illustrate the uses of this new analytical framework. The article concludes by suggesting the various ways the device may assist in analyzing attraction and transfer and in opening up new areas of research.

 

Higher Education and the Knowledge Society: issues, challenges and responses in Norway and Germany

doi:10.2304/rcie.2006.1.3.241

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This article investigates how employers and university leaders in two very different countries, Germany and Norway, are responding to the challenges imposed by the global knowledge economy and the 1999 Bologna Declaration. It asks: does society need more or fewer graduates? What competencies do employers expect of their graduate workers? How do higher education institutions perceive their responsibility towards the employability of their graduates? Both countries offer the opportunity to illustrate responses to shared challenges. From a comparative perspective a number of issues have emerged. In Germany, the country’s federal structure with divided responsibilities remains a cause of frustration. Reforms are slow and laden with complexities. Norway’s centralised system of higher education, on the other hand, and the availability of resources, has eased higher education reforms but not anxieties about the country’s economic future ‘once the oil runs out’. However, the successes of two mass higher education systems built on Humboldtian traditions are also discussed.

 

Unequal Educational Outcomes among First-Generation Immigrants: the case of youth from the former Soviet Union in Israel

doi: 10.2304/rcie.2006.1.3.253

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This study focuses on school enrollment and patterns of track placement in the Israeli secondary education system among immigrant youth from the former Soviet Union. This unique case is discussed in the light of segmented assimilation theory and the accommodation-without-assimilation hypothesis. The findings of the study conclude that a family’s previous socio-economic status is more important than its current socio-economic status in determining the educational outcomes of immigrant youth; students whose mothers possess higher educational qualifications are more likely to be enrolled in Israeli high schools and intend to complete all necessary matriculation examinations than children whose mothers have lower educational qualifications; immigrant youth with a previous record of high academic achievements in the Soviet Union had stronger matriculation intentions and were more likely to be enrolled in academic tracks; a student’s proficiency in Hebrew had strong, significant effects on enrollment status, educational intentions and track placement; youth reporting negative relations with Israeli peers and frequent arguments with parents over smoking, alcohol and drugs were more likely to drop out and have lower educational intentions; and immigrant adolescents with stronger ties to Israeli peers were less likely to be enrolled in academic and professional tracks.

 

Higher Education in Israel at a Crossroads: the effect of regional colleges on the map of higher education in Israel

doi:10.2304/rcie.2006.1.3.271

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A historical review of institutions of higher education in Israel reveals far-reaching changes in all aspects of higher education since the first university was established in Mandatory Palestine in 1925, the most salient of these being the increasing demand for higher education in recent decades. This study attempts to determine whether the present system of higher education in Israel is progressing toward a binary system, characterized by a clear division of labor between universities and colleges directed toward different target populations, or whether development is oriented toward a converging system, with the various academic institutions growing more similar to one another. The findings of the study, based on a survey of students at two distinct institutions, confirm that a similar model operates in both types of higher education institutions, according to which students’ sense of academic success is the product of a student-centric learning process. In this process, organizational attributes, including orientation, experience and social and academic climates, interplay with student demographic and psychosocial attributes, including self-efficacy, to produce students’ sense of academic success.

 

Teaching about the World: two case studies

doi:10.2304/rcie.2006.1.3.286

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In response to the challenges of globalization, scholars and educators have been calling forth the infusion of global education into school curricula in order to enable children to adapt to the dynamic and changing contexts, as well as to live in an increasingly interdependent and culturally diverse world. However, there is a paucity of research literature in the area of intraregional and intercultural comparative studies on teachers’ instructional decisions and practices in Hong Kong’s global classrooms. This article aims to fill the vacuum in this area of study and shed light on the uniqueness and commonness of the two case-study schools – one local school and one international school. It is expected that the article can yield conceptual and practical lessons for the study of teachers’ instructional decisions and practices in the global classrooms in school contexts with different cultures.

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