Policy Futures in Education
ISSN 1478-2103


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Volume 10 Number 1 2012

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CONTENTS [click on author's name for abstract and full text]

 

SYMPOSIUM
Education and Scenarios for a Post-Occidental World
Editors: MICHAEL BAKER & MICHAEL A. PETERS

Michael A. Peters & Michael Baker. Introduction. Education and Scenarios for a Post-Occidental World, pages 1‑3 http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2012.10.1.1 VIEW FULL TEXT

Michael Baker. Modernity/Coloniality and Eurocentric Education: towards a post-Occidental self-understanding of the present, pages 4‑22

Michael A. Peters. Postmodern Educational Capitalism, Global Information Systems and New Media Networks, pages 23‑29

Michael Baker & Michael A. Peters. Dialogue on Modernity and Modern Education in Dispute, pages 30‑50

Peter Murphy. Culture, Power, and the University in the Twenty-First Century, pages 51‑58

Jan Nederveen Pieterse & Michael A. Peters. Understanding the Sources of Anti-Westernism: a dialogue between Jan Nederveen Pieterse and Michael A. Peters, pages 59‑69 http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2012.10.1.59 VIEW FULL TEXT

Hüseyin Esen (Editor) Alejandra Sanchez, Daniel Araya, Drea Gallaga, Fungai Kanogoiwa, Hüseyin Esen, James Geary, Keecheng Choe, Khan Grogan Ullah, Lisa Carbajo, Margaret Fitzpatrick, Mercedes Pour-Previti, Michael A. Peters, Mousumi Mukherjee, Rodrigo Britez. A Post-Occidental Globe?, pages 70‑77

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GENERAL ARTICLES
Andrew Kipnis. Chinese Nation-Building and the Rethinking of Globalization and Education, pages 78‑80

Mousumi Mukherjee. US Study Abroad from the Periphery to the Center of the Global Curriculum in the Information Age, pages 81‑89

Philippa Hunter. Using Vignettes as Self-reflexivity in Narrative Research of Problematised History Pedagogy, pages 90‑102

Pamela Esprívalo Harrell & Colleen McLean Eddy. Examining Mathematics Teacher Content Knowledge: policy and practice, pages 103‑116

Michael A. Peters & Tina (A.C.) Besley. The Narrative Turn and the Poetics of Resistance: towards a new language for critical educational studies, pages 117‑127

BOOK REVIEWS
Being Young and Muslim: new cultural politics in the global South and North (Linda Herrera & Asef Bayat, Eds), reviewed by Peter Mayo, pages 128‑131
Education as Dialogue: its prerequisites and its enemies (Tasos Kazepides), reviewed by Adrienne N.P. Johnson, pages 131‑132
Ethnography and Language Policy (Teresa L. McCarty, Ed.), reviewed by Kristen L. Pratt, pages 132‑134 http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2012.10.1.128 VIEW FULL TEXT


Modernity/Coloniality and Eurocentric Education: towards a post-Occidental self-understanding of the present

MICHAEL BAKER Warner Graduate School of Education and Human Development, University of Rochester, USA

http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2012.10.1.4

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This article sketches a post-Occidental interpretation of the historical/conceptual relationships between modern western education and European civilizational identity formation. Modern western education will be interpreted as a modern/colonial institution that emerged along with the sixteenth-century responses to the questions provoked by the breakup of medieval Christendom and the discovery of the Americas: What is man? Where does he come from? Where is he going? Modern western education and European civilizational identity, as distinct from Christendom, emerged together (simultaneous and interrelated) during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries within the initial formation of a global structural dynamic designed for governing the social world, both within and beyond Europe. Modern western education is a central institution within the ongoing disciplinary projects of modernity and its differentiated reproduction of particular subjectivities. This perspective problematizes the Euro-American historiography of modernity along with the contemporary historical self-understanding of modern western education. From this perspective, the self-understanding of modern western education (both metropolitan and colonial) emerged and remains largely embedded within the conceptual and historical framework identified here as Occidentalism. This article concludes with a proposal for rethinking education within an ecology of knowledges, articulated by Boaventura de Sousa Santos. Post-Occidental reasoning contributes to the recognition and inclusion of the multiplicity of knowledge systems occluded by the hegemony of western epistemology and Eurocentric education.

 

Postmodern Educational Capitalism, Global Information Systems and New Media Networks

http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2012.10.1.23

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This article reinterprets Lyotard’s argument in The Postmodern Condition as a basis for a radical political economy approach to knowledge capitalism focusing on post-industrialism in order to put the case that education and knowledge are increasingly becoming part of a globally integrated world capitalism (IWC) that is structured through emerging global information systems and new media networks. The article embraces the possibility of ‘open knowledge production’ as an area of intellectual activity driven by an ethic of collaboration as a basis for a reconstituted public sphere.

 

Dialogue on Modernity and Modern Education in Dispute

http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2012.10.1.30

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This is a dialogue or conversation between Michael Baker (MB) and Michael A. Peters (MP) on the concept of modernity and its significance for educational theory. The dialogue took place originally as a conversation about a symposium on modernity held at the American Educational Studies Association meeting 2010. It was later developed for publication in this form.

 

Culture, Power, and the University in the Twenty-First Century

http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2012.10.1.51

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Powerful nations have influential systems of higher education. The article explores the possible pattern of geopolitics in the twenty-first century, and the competing prospects of America and its rivals in higher education and research. Pressures on both the American and non-American worlds are evaluated, along with relative economic strengths, and how factors such as these translate into intellectual prowess. The article suggests that peak intellectual and research achievement is dependent on cultural factors, and that America remains well positioned as an intellectual nation despite fierce competition from rivals because of unique cultural characteristics.

 

A Post-Occidental Globe?

http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2012.10.1.70

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This is an experiment in conversation on the topic of ‘a post-occidental globe’. It emerges from a moderated discussion group where members of a class – master’s and PhD students – reflected upon a set of resources provided as part of a course in Global Studies in Education at the University of Illinois. The conversation threads were moderated and edited by Huseyin Esen.

 

Chinese Nation-Building and the Rethinking of Globalization and Education

http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2012.10.1.78

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Social, educational and political theorists increasingly portray today’s world as one in which the globalization of Western forms dominates social, political and educational processes everywhere. According to this view, nation-building, though important in the West during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, is no longer an important social process. This view elides the recent importance of Chinese nation-building to both contemporary and future global trends. With a focus on educational phenomena, this article explores the ways in which Chinese nation-building is being globalized and coming to influence non-Chinese actors.

 

US Study Abroad from the Periphery to the Center of the Global Curriculum in the Information Age

http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2012.10.1.81

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The Higher Education Act of 1965 for the first time gave discretionary authority to campuses to use federal financial aid in support of students studying abroad. Thereafter, US study abroad has thus evolved from the periphery to the center of the global curriculum. In 2005 the Lincoln Commission report proposed an ambitious goal of sending one million students abroad each year to promote educational and cultural exchange for intercultural understanding, peace and global citizenship. Following this recommendation a legislative and federal policy, the Senator Paul Simon Study Abroad Foundation Act, was approved in June 2009 by the US House of Representatives authorizing generous funding for fiscal years 2010 and 2011 to the US Department of State and Peace Corps for innovative new programs that would enhance US capacity to engage with the world. The article traces this historic expansion effort, its link with the current pedagogical discourse on global citizenship and reflects on its relation to the ideology of curriculum to highlight the need to develop more critically reflexive curricula and pedagogy. The article also reflects critically on the empirical research literature to highlight the gaps between the assumptions driving investment in study abroad and its learning outcome.

 

Using Vignettes as Self-reflexivity in Narrative Research of Problematised History Pedagogy

http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2012.10.1.90

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This article focuses on the use of vignettes as an emergent dimension of narrative research writing. The author draws on doctoral research that problematised history curriculum and pedagogy with pre-service teachers in the context of secondary teacher education in New Zealand. Pedagogic crossings of history education sites, and negotiation of disciplinary boundaries were storied in the narrative research. A lived experience of curriculum continuity and change had shaped a critical pedagogy orientation in the author’s theorising and practice. This featured a self-reflexivity of pedagogic identities including those of student, practitioner, and researcher. The narrative writing was conceptualised as a layered bricolage of academic socialisation, engagement with theory, and practitioner work. Accordingly, it proved unworkable to distance the author’s lived experience and pedagogic identities from the narrative, for these lay at the heart of the research. Therefore, the styling of vignettes became a creative way to story self-reflexivity within academic writing. Vignettes were conceived as inside stories that recalled pedagogic voices and evoked themes of curriculum disturbance as transgression, and desire as re-imagined history curriculum.

 

Examining Mathematics Teacher Content Knowledge: policy and practice

http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2012.10.1.103

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This study examines mathematics teacher content knowledge in terms of state and national policymaker recommendations, college coursework and the Mathematics Texas Examination of Educator Standards (TExES) score. Results indicate differences between state and national policy recommendations and college degrees in mathematics. A statistically significant negative relationship between college coursework and the test domains was found for Algebra (p = -.456), Geometry (p = -.442), Probability and Statistics (p = -.421), and Discrete Mathematics (p = -.674). Although teacher candidates completed many mathematics courses, the fail rate for the Mathematics TExES was a quarter of teachers. Policymakers are asked to consider the validity for contents test which align poorly with college degrees in mathematics.

 

The Narrative Turn and the Poetics of Resistance: towards a new language for critical educational studies

http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2012.10.1.117

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This article argues for the adoption of a new language in critical educational studies through the ‘narrative turn’, a turn that politicizes knowledge by drawing attention to questions concerning the meaning, construction and authorship of narratives. In the authors’ interpretation going back to the poetics of early narrative forms they development the argument that there is an ancient history of the form that privileges it as a means and form of resistance. The article tracks the adoption of narrative in the human sciences and details the development of narratology as the scientific study of narrative by such luminaries as Paul Ricoeur, and describes the ‘crisis of narrative’ in the postmodern condition by reference to the work of Lyotard, who begins to problematize the ‘metanarrative’ and its role in legitimation processes. This political understanding of narrative is further explored in relation to ‘narrative identity’ through the work of Benedict Anderson, Homi Bhabha and Charles Taylor and their emphasis on social imaginaries.

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